Definitions

ACTIVE LEARNING
This happens when “we act when something happens, in us or outside us, of which we are the adequate cause” (pp. 70, D2)

PASSIVE LEARNING
This happens when “we are acted on when something happens in us, or something follows from our nature, of which we are only a partial cause” (pp. 70, D2)

AFFECT
I like the word “affect” rather than “emotion” as it sometimes translated because it embraces the notion that both thought and feeling are inextricably linked to each other. Spinoza writes:

By affect I understand affections of the body by which the body’s power of acting is increased or diminished, aided or restrained, and at the same time, the ideas of these affections. (Spinoza, 1994a, pp. 70, D3)

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