Defining the affects: Spinoza’s aphorisms

LEARNING AND EMULATION
Emulation is a desire for a thing which is generated in us because we imagine that others have the same desire. (pp. 110, D XXXIII)

LEARNING, DESIRE AND LONGING
Longing is really a sadness which is opposed to that joy which arises from the absence of a thing we hate (P47S) (pp. 110, D XXXII)
Longing is a desire, or appetite, to possess something which is encouraged by the memory of that thing, and at the same time restrained by the memory of other things which exclude the existence of the thing wanted…

LEARNING, DESIRE AND THANKFULNESS
Thankfulness, or gratitude, is a desire, or eagerness of love by which we strive to benefit one who has benefited us from a like affect of love (P39 and P41S) (pp. 110, D XXXIV)
LEARNING, DESIRE AND BENEVOLENCE
Benevolence is a desire to benefit one whom we pity (SeeP27S). (pp. 110, D XXXV)
LEARNING, DESIRE AND DARING
Daring is a desire by which someone is spurred to do something dangerous which his equals fear to take on themselves. (pp. 111, D XL)
LEARNING, DESIRE AND HUMAN KINDNESS
Human kindness, or courtesy, is a desire to do what pleases men and not do what displeases them. (pp. 111, D XLIII)
LEARNING, DESIRE AND CONSTERNATION
Consternation is attributed to one whose desire to avoid an evil is restrained by wonder at the evil he fears…is a species of cowardice. But because consternation arises from a double timidity, it can be more conveniently defined as a fear which keeps a man senseless or vacillating so that he cannot avert evil. (pp. 111, D XLII).
LEARNING, DESIRE AND ANGER
Anger is a desire by which we are spurred, from hate, to do evil to one we hate. (See P39) (pp. 111, D XXXVI)
LEARNING, DESIRE AND VENGEANCE
Vengeance is a desire, by which, from reciprocal hate, we are roused to do evil to one who, from a like affect, has injured us. (See P40C and P40CS.) (pp. 111, D XXXVII)
LEARNING, DESIRE AND CRUELTY
Cruelty, or severity, is a desire by which someone is roused to do evil to one whom we love or pity. (pp. 111, D XXXVIII)
LEARNING, DESIRE AND TIMIDITY
Timidity is a desire to avoid a greater evil, which we fear, by a lesser one. (pp. 111, D XXXIX)
LEARNING, DESIRE AND COWARDICE
Cowardice is ascribed to one whose desire is restrained by timidity regarding a danger which his equals dare to take on themselves. (pp. 111, D XLI)
LEARNING, DESIRE AND AMBITION
Ambition is an excessive desire for esteem. Exp: Ambition is a desire by which all the affects are encouraged and strengthened (by P27 and P31)…For as long as a man is bound by any desire, he must at the same time by bound by this one. (pp. 111, D XIV)
LEARNING, DESIRE AND GLUTTONY
Gluttony is an immoderate desire for and love of eating. (pp. 111, D XLV)
LEARNING, DESIRE AND DRUNKENNESS
Drunkenness is an immoderate desire for and love of drinking. (pp. 111, D XLVI)

LEARNING, DESIRE AND GREED
Greed is an immoderate desire for and love of wealth. (pp. 111, D XLVII)
LEARNING, DESIRE AND LOVE
Lust is also a desire for and love joining one body to another. (pp. 112, D XLVIII)