Love and hate chart

Love (a subset of Joy) Hate (a subset of Sadness)
Devotion is a love of one whom we wonder at (pp. 106, D. X) Envy is a hate insofar as it so affects a man that he is saddened by another’s happiness and, conversely, glad at his ill fortune. (pp. 107, D. XXIII)
Favor is a love toward someone who has benefited another. (pp. 107, D. XIX) Indignation is a hate towards someone who has done evil to another. (pp. 107, D. XX)
Overestimation is thinking more highly of someone than is just, out of love. (pp. 107, D. XXI)



Scorn is thinking more highly of someone than is just, out of hate. (1994a, pp. 107, D. XXII)
Compassion is love, insofar as it so affects a man that he is glad at another’s good fortune, and saddened by his ill fortune. (1994a, pp. 108, D. XXIV) Envy is a hate insofar as it so affects a man that he is saddened by another’s happiness and, conversely, glad at his ill fortune. (1994a, pp. 107, D. XXIII)
Pride is thinking more highly of oneself than is just, out love of oneself… love of oneself, or self-esteem, insofar as it so affects a man that he thinks more highly of himself than is just. (pp. 108, D XXVIII) There is a possible link: Despondency is thinking less highly of oneself than is just, out of sadness (pp. 108, D XXVIII) There is no opposite for this affect. (pp. 109, D XXVIII)

Learning and images of power

Spinoza writes in P54: “The mind strives to imagine only those things which posits its power of action” (p. 98). The crucial word here is “imagine”. Many teachers and students “imagine” that they know about those things that “posit” their “powers of action”, but they may well be mistaken in this “imagination”. For example, many students may well feel that gaining the approval of their peer group will “posit” their “powers of action” and this stops them listening in class or trying hard with their work. But their conatus strives to attain these illusory “images of power”. Thus we can see that Spinoza gives us a clear map as to why students appear not to learn within the school context. For complex reasons, many students’ minds “strive to imagine only those things which posit its power of action”. It is incumbent upon the teacher to have an adequate understanding of this fact, and assist such students to move beyond “imagining” to the realm of “reasoning” about where the “real” power is to be located, which is, of course in a Spinozist philosophy, to be found in conceiving adequate ideas. Thus we can see that a Spinozist pedagogue would avoid a system of rewards and punishments for misdemeanours, but would instead help students conceive adequate ideas about where the mind’s “powers of action” are to be found. Indeed, when a teacher assists a student in thinking adequately about their powers of action, the student should feel joy because their powers of action will be increased. This then could become the ultimate test about whether a teacher has really helped a student change their behaviour. If they walk away from such a discussion looking sad, angry etc., then the teacher should know that student has not gained an adequate idea of where their powers of action lie. Therefore, the teacher needs to consider ways in which that student might increase their power.

The conatus strives to increase its power of acting when it can, but if it is guided by the imagination – the first realm of knowledge –, which most of us are, then it will not increase its powers of action or feel joy. As we have seen, the affects can manifest themselves as passions which act upon us, or, when we conceive adequate ideas, increase our powers of action and therefore we feel joy. The feeling of joy though does not necessarily mean that a learner is conceiving adequate ideas. As a passion, joy is a “confused idea”. I have encountered many classrooms where students are feeling joy – laughing at about something or other – and this seriously hindered their learning. Such “inadequate joy” in the learning context can be infectious, breeding more joy, because, as Spinoza points out the affects create more affects (pp. 84, P. 27), and you have a class laughing their heads off and not learning a thing.

Similarly, sadness may well breed more sadness if circumstances foster this. Spinoza writes in P55: “When the mind imagines its own lack of power, it is saddened by it” (p. 98) . Such “contagious” sadness will breed a more depressed atmosphere in class. I would like to argue that actually a joyous atmosphere is possibly preferable to a depressed one. Even though a depressed class might be easier to “control”, they may well be harder to teach because they will be less receptive to learning. Even when students are victims of the passion of joy, I would like to argue that the teacher has a better chance to “direct” their joy towards learning. To do this, the teacher may well have to ask the students what they are feeling happy about, why they are laughing. Now, this may seem like a huge distraction, but in a Spinozist pedagogy it would not be, it would be an opportunity for the teacher to provide students with a more adequate understanding of their own joy. The teacher should draw the students towards the processes upon which the student gained an adequate understanding of their joy, and then try to relate those processes of gaining an adequate understanding towards the desired object of learning.

So I would like to argue, it is incumbent upon the teacher to produce an affective and intellectual environment where joy is more likely to be bred because this will help the teacher direct students towards the adequate ideas which will increase their powers of acting, and thus generate joy which is not a passion, but an active force. The diagram Joy and Adequate Ideas shows this process; the teacher creates the affect of joy and encourages students to reflect upon this passion, which leads to them feeling joy as an active force, which then necessarily creates more adequate ideas.

It’s my contention that joy is the connecting force between everything. Joy is God. And yet, there is a paradox because Joy only comes into being if there is striving, sadness and desire. It has a complex and necessary relationship with the affects. We see this vividly illustrated in the film Inside Out (2015) it is only when Riley, the protagonist, learns to think adequately about the way she has lost the joy of her previous home, and has learnt to feel joy in her power to reason that she can feel joy in the present moment. The film represents this psychic journey by having Joy being represented as a young woman being in charge of the command module of Riley’s mind until the characters of Disgust, Anger and Fear push her off it, which leads to her expulsion to “Imagination” land. It is only when Joy “teams up” with the lugubrious Sadness, also expelled from the command module that Riley is able to gain her reasoning faculties back. The film, loosely based on recent cognitive learning theories, suggests that we need to accept the “sadness” of inevitable loss as we grow older in order to feel joyful again. A Spinozist pedagogue would possibly take a different approach, putting the emphasis upon the importance of reason to adequately understand the processes of loss that we undergo in our lives.

In P25, Spinoza writes:

We strive to affirm, concerning ourselves and what we love, whatever we imagine to affect with joy ourselves or what we love. On the other hand, we strive to deny whatever we imagine affects with sadness ourselves or what we love. (p. 83)

The process that Riley undergoes is painful because, as Spinoza points out, in P25 we “strive to deny whatever we imagine affects with sadness ourselves or what we love”.

Later on, I consider the different affects separately, but I would like to point out here the inter-connectedness of the affects: they are always in a complex, dynamic relationship with each other. They are constantly flowing through us, producing us; I see them as elemental forces, currents, eddies and waves if you like, that produce the subject, not the other way round. Mostly, we are not fully in control of them. I like the image of us being like surfers who rid the sea of affects. In order to become competent at staying upright on a changeable ocean, the learner needs to acquire an adequate understanding of them in the educative context.

Much of Spinoza’s Chapter III explores the causes of our bondage to affects which decrease our powers of action, why sadness and hate often affect us. One key point he makes is that intense emotions focused upon the “idea of an external cause” will be changeable because the “idea of the external cause” will be unreliable. Namely, if the “idea of the external cause” is removed, then sadness may focus upon the “cause” that removed it. Many of Spinoza’s Propositions in Chapter III examine this issue; the interconnections between love and hate. This is important for the learner and teacher to consider because loving a subject in school will increase the learner’s power and therefore help them learn more effectively, but hate will do the opposite. And yet, the two things are very closely related. For example, a class which has a teacher it loves, and then are given a different teacher, may well focus their sadness at losing that teacher onto the external cause of the new teacher, and therefore hate them, to a lesser or greater extent.

Spinoza’s philosophy is particularly helpful in this context because it shows how bodies of all types from an individual person to a class to a whole institution like a school “express” affects. As a teacher myself, I’ve noticed how every class or grouping of people has its own “affective” atmosphere.

Defining the affects: Spinoza’s aphorisms

Emulation is a desire for a thing which is generated in us because we imagine that others have the same desire. (pp. 110, D XXXIII)

Longing is really a sadness which is opposed to that joy which arises from the absence of a thing we hate (P47S) (pp. 110, D XXXII)
Longing is a desire, or appetite, to possess something which is encouraged by the memory of that thing, and at the same time restrained by the memory of other things which exclude the existence of the thing wanted…

Thankfulness, or gratitude, is a desire, or eagerness of love by which we strive to benefit one who has benefited us from a like affect of love (P39 and P41S) (pp. 110, D XXXIV)
Benevolence is a desire to benefit one whom we pity (SeeP27S). (pp. 110, D XXXV)
Daring is a desire by which someone is spurred to do something dangerous which his equals fear to take on themselves. (pp. 111, D XL)
Human kindness, or courtesy, is a desire to do what pleases men and not do what displeases them. (pp. 111, D XLIII)
Consternation is attributed to one whose desire to avoid an evil is restrained by wonder at the evil he fears…is a species of cowardice. But because consternation arises from a double timidity, it can be more conveniently defined as a fear which keeps a man senseless or vacillating so that he cannot avert evil. (pp. 111, D XLII).
Anger is a desire by which we are spurred, from hate, to do evil to one we hate. (See P39) (pp. 111, D XXXVI)
Vengeance is a desire, by which, from reciprocal hate, we are roused to do evil to one who, from a like affect, has injured us. (See P40C and P40CS.) (pp. 111, D XXXVII)
Cruelty, or severity, is a desire by which someone is roused to do evil to one whom we love or pity. (pp. 111, D XXXVIII)
Timidity is a desire to avoid a greater evil, which we fear, by a lesser one. (pp. 111, D XXXIX)
Cowardice is ascribed to one whose desire is restrained by timidity regarding a danger which his equals dare to take on themselves. (pp. 111, D XLI)
Ambition is an excessive desire for esteem. Exp: Ambition is a desire by which all the affects are encouraged and strengthened (by P27 and P31)…For as long as a man is bound by any desire, he must at the same time by bound by this one. (pp. 111, D XIV)
Gluttony is an immoderate desire for and love of eating. (pp. 111, D XLV)
Drunkenness is an immoderate desire for and love of drinking. (pp. 111, D XLVI)

Greed is an immoderate desire for and love of wealth. (pp. 111, D XLVII)
Lust is also a desire for and love joining one body to another. (pp. 112, D XLVIII)

Conceiving adequate ideas about love and learning


The learner is either consciously or unconsciously constantly striving to learn about those things that increase their joy. I have seen this time and again in the classroom. The child who feels that joy is to be found in mucking around with his/her friends, rather than “learning” what the teacher has set them to learn. (pp. 77-78, P12)


When learners encounter situations which are “painful” or “sad” to them, they tend to forget everything that they’ve been taught during these times. Fear is not a powerful learning tool, and yet it is constantly created in the classroom when teachers threaten punishments if work is not done. A Spinozist pedagogy would suggest that this will lead to a decrease in the learner’s powers of action and lead to learners forgetting what they’ve been “taught”. Spinoza claims that the mind strives to “recollect things which exclude the existence” of things which have “decreased the mind’s powers of action” (pp. 78, P13). This may, in part, explain why teachers find that their students often “get things the wrong way round”, or discuss irrelevant matters; they are recollecting the very things that enable them to forget what they did not enjoy.


Spinoza writes: “Love is nothing but joy with the accompanying idea of an external cause.” (Spinoza, 1994a, pp. 78, P13 Schol.). So we are building up a picture of what successful learning might look like here: learning to conceive adequate ideas should be a joyful experience and that “love of learning” should be a natural corollary to learning itself.
By how to do this? Well, at the heart of a Spinozist pedagogy will be, as we have said, the teacher helping students conceive adequate ideas, but I would also like to argue that Spinoza’s philosophy suggests that getting students to reflect upon the affects that have accompanied their learning experiences might be productive, and will help them get a better conception of the affective processes involved in learning. This, in turn, suggests that it might be productive to ask students about the times when they have loved learning and to recollect the strategies which enabled them to learn, which they are then to apply to the object of learning in the teacher’s lesson. Part of the journey of conceiving of adequate ideas of learning will be conceiving of learning as a joyful, desirable experience.

This diagram is positing the case that the learner needs to be cognizant of the joy of learning as a necessary grounding in order to focus upon a specific object of learning. An adequate idea of the joy of learning is required for a learner to learn anything. Fortunately, most babies acquire a natural love of learning and an implicit awareness that learning is joyful, but a variety of factors lead to many students losing this “faith” in the joyfulness of the learning process and this necessarily decreases their power of learning.
What learning processes do you love and why? What is joyful about the process of discovering something?